China’s Pet Industry Is Booming. So Are Its Horrific Breeding Mills. – Sixth Tone


When Yuanzi decided to get a cat in July, the fresh graduate didn’t spend long researching her options. She simply opened the Chinese e-commerce app Taobao.

After some browsing, the 26-year-old selected a Persian kitten from a cattery in Shanghai. It was one of the top vendors, so Yuanzi assumed it must be a good business. She paid the 8, 500 yuan ($1, 250).

But when her new pet arrived a few days later, Yuanzi quickly realized something wasn’t right. The kitten seemed weak, and began vomiting and suffering diarrhea. Within three days, it was hospitalized with feline distemper — a highly contagious and deadly disease. Five days later, it died.

Yuanzi was upset by the loss. But her sadness turned to horror once she began looking into why her cat had arrived in such a terrible state.

She discovered reams of footage on social media showing the inhumane conditions inside China’s breeding industry. In one clip, dozens of cats — almost all of them suffering from visible injuries — were crowded into a small, squalid room. In another, a breeder was cutting open the abdomen of a British shorthair undergoing a difficult birth. No sign of sterilization, no anesthesia. The mother cat’s cries haunted her for days afterward.

My gut tells me that my kitten came from the cat mill disguised as a cattery.

Yuanzi still isn’t sure whether her kitten was raised in that kind of center. When she contacted the particular cattery, it refused to allow her to see its animals’ living environment. Instead, it offered to send her another kitten “in 100% good health. ” But the student fears the worst.

“My gut tells me that will my kitten came from a cat mill disguised like a cattery, ” says Yuanzi, who spoke with Sixth Tone using a pseudonym for privacy reasons.

Many Chinese pet owners have suffered similar experiences. Backyard breeding centers are thriving amid China’s boom within pet ownership, allowed to boost profits by keeping animals in horrifying — and often dangerously unsanitary — problems due to a lack of regulation plus public scrutiny.  

China’s pet market has seen extraordinary growth in recent years, driven by rising living standards and three years of COVID-19 lockdowns. The country’s pet cat population surpassed 58 million in 2021 — up 19. 4% year-over-year — while the number of pet dogs reached 54 million.

Most of China’s new pet owners consider themselves devoted animal lovers. Many describe themselves as doting “ cat slaves , ” pampering their “fur babies” with premium kibble, toys, and grooming services. A typical Chinese pet owner splurges 6, 650 yuan ($960) per year on pet products, more than the average Chinese consumer spends upon food, tobacco, and alcohol, according to business information platform IT Juzi.

Yet few are aware of how breeding centers operate. That’s enabling breeding mills to practice cruelty on an industrial scale, unchecked by public scrutiny. China’s lack of animal protection legislation makes the problem worse, as breeders are rarely punished for bad practices.

Cats are crammed into small cages at a kitten mill. Courtesy of Maogongzi

Cats are crammed into small cages at a kitten mill. Courtesy of Maogongzi

“Source of goods”

Kitten mills are the most common form of backyard breeding operation, where hundreds or even thousands of cats are crammed into cages and forced to give birth multiple times a year.

A former kitten work owner, surnamed Su, told Sixth Tone he used to have 600 cats reproducing three to four times per year. Some female cats spent their entire lives in their cages. Su used aphrodisiacs designed for livestock and poultry to stimulate his cats’ estrus plus increase their productivity.

According to Su, kitten mills are the “source of goods” for 80% of pet stores in China. Pet stores are the Chinese dog industry’s biggest sales channel, accounting with regard to over 35% of total sales, according to a 2019 report by Chinese research firm Leadleo.

Backyard breeding centers also appear to supply many of the nearly 5, 000 cat vendors operating on Taobao. The platform’s top selling vendor, which sells over 10, 000 cats per month, told Sixth Tone this had “thousands of pet cats in the warehouse, ” but declined requests to view circumstances inside the facility as “the stockpile is too large. ”

A cat inside a kitten mill in China. Many of the cats stay inside the cages their entire lives. Courtesy of Maogongzi

A cat inside a kitten mill in China. Many of the cats stay inside the cages their entire lives. Courtesy of Maogongzi

The breeding industry is highly secretive, and it’s difficult for customers to get a glimpse inside the centers that supply their creatures. But videos secretly recorded by animal rights advocates during surprise visits to kitten mills show grim conditions, with many cats in an agitated state and bearing injuries.

Tu refused to provide specific details about conditions inside his former kitten mill, but admitted they were similar to those pictured in the videos.

For Su, breeding pets was no different to any other kind of business. Its main attraction was its high profit margins: the unit cost of the cat was often as low as 20-30 yuan, while they sold for hundreds or even thousands.

“It is a solid and profitable business, ” says Su, adding that his cat mill made just under 1 million yuan per year.

But this hard-nosed approach creates a multitude of problems. Cai Chunhong, a lawyer who has specialized in animal protection cases for over a decade, says many breeders inject sick pets with immune serum to make them appear exuberant and healthy.

Tu confirmed this was a common practice. Breeders also regularly use antibiotics to ensure kittens survive just long enough to make it to the pet stores, he added.

Most backyard breeders leave the animals whenever they are ill or cannot procreate anymore, as they’re of no use towards the breeders.

Breeders will abandon their animals as soon as they are no longer profitable, rescue organizations tell Sixth Strengthen.

Last August, RHR Shanghai — a local animal protection group — found 33 Chartreux felines abandoned on a vacant construction site on Shanghai’s southwestern outskirts. All of them were sick, with the adult cats generally weighing less than three kilograms. The volunteers also found the particular remains of 15 cats and kittens on the site, which appeared to possess died from car accidents plus illness.

According to RHR Shanghai, the cats were likely owned by a backyard breeding operation, and were abandoned after becoming sick. Owners often want to avoid the cost of veterinary bills, they added.

Live With the Cat, an additional animal rescue organization, found three dozen cats abandoned inside a backyard breeding base disguised as a cat café in the southwestern city of Chengdu the same month. The scene of rotting corpses, feces, clouds of flies, and rotten food shocked even experienced team members.

A cat abandoned inside a backyard breeding center that operated under the guise of a cat café in Chengdu, Sichuan province. Courtesy of Live With The Cat

A kitty abandoned inside a backyard mating center that operated under the guise of a cat kaffeehaus in Chengdu, Sichuan province. Courtesy of Live With The Cat

“Most backyard breeders leave the animals whenever they are sick or cannot procreate any longer, as they’re of no use to the breeders, ” says Huayuan, a rescuer at Live With the Cat, who also spoke under a pseudonym regarding privacy reasons.

The huge number of cats abandoned by breeding companies is also creating another problem: a skyrocketing stray populace. China’s number of stray pet cats grows by around 40 million per year on average, 6th Tone’s sister site The particular Paper reported.

Cats from breeding centers now show up frequently on the streets of Chengdu, based on Live With the Cat. The organization has encountered five such cases already this year.

The cats within Su’s former kitten generator met a similarly grisly end. When China went into lockdown at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the particular animals were left alone for several months. Su returned to the center to find all of the cats had died. After that, he decided to move into the building materials trade.

“A drop in the ocean”

There is currently little in order to restrain the actions of family pet breeders in China. With no industry guidelines in place, the conditions inside breeding facilities depend almost entirely around the consciences of the businesses’ owners, according to Cai, the lawyer.

“It’s hard for ethics to beat profiteering, ” says Cai.

Animal welfare groups have been lobbying the government to introduce stronger legal protections for pets for years, but progress has been slow. Current animal welfare rules only apply to laboratory pets, while the ban on wildlife trading introduced during the pandemic does not affect the breeding associated with domestic pets.

A screenshot shows a store advertising pet "blind boxes" on an e-commerce platform. From @天眼新闻 on Weibo

A screenshot shows a store advertising pet “blind boxes” on an e-commerce system. From @天眼新闻 on Weibo

The government has come under greater pressure to take action over the past few years. Whenever a new scandal related to the particular live pet trade emerges — such as last year’s trend for mailing live pets inside “blind boxes” — they are often followed by public calls for tougher regulation.

Deputies to the National People’s Congress, China’s best legislative body, have proposed new measures to strengthen animal rights every year since 2015. The past three years saw proposals to ban the for-profit breeding and sales of live pets plus punish those found to have abandoned or abused a domestic animal. Yet none of these suggestions have become law so far.

“It seems that animal welfare is not so critical or urgent an issue for legislators, ” says Cai. “But a genuine game changer can’t come from anyone but the government, which has the authority to raise the particular bar on live pet trading and crack down on backyard breeding operations. ”

Animal well being groups are also trying to raise public awareness of conditions within the breeding industry, hoping to convince pet owners not to buy animals from stores that work along with breeding mills.

Abandoned cats undergo medical treatment. Courtesy of RHR Shanghai

Abandoned felines undergo medical treatment. Courtesy of RHR Shanghai

Many groups — including RHR Shanghai and Experience the Cat — regularly post footage of the cruel practices used inside backyard breeding centers to social networking. These shocking clips often go viral, garnering more than 100, 000 views and sparking heated discussion.

Yet both organizations are pessimistic about how effective this advocacy really is. China’s breeding industry is just so big, and public awareness of backyard breeding remains lower.  

People never pay attention to the issue of backyard breeding until they get a pet.

The situation is particularly challenging in China, where millions of people are getting a cat or dog for the very first time. These first-time buyers tend to be the most likely to unwittingly fuel the backyard breeding business, yet they are also the hardest people to reach.

“People never pay attention to the problem of backyard breeding till they get a pet — the overwhelming majority of our audience are pet owners, ” says Huayuan. “It’s very difficult to break the information cocoon around prospective pet owners. ”

The breeding market, meanwhile, is unlikely to change its practices unless it’s forced to. Su says he doesn’t understand why backyard breeding provokes such anger. It’s no different to the animal husbandry industry, he argues.

“Pigs, chickens, ducks, geese … so much livestock is on sale, ” says Su. “Why do we have to treat cats and dogs differently? ”

After the girl experience in July, Yuanzi joined a group for cat owners on the social app WeChat. Many of the members said they’d had the same issue: their pets got ill shortly after arriving at their brand new homes. Some kittens eventually recovered, others were came back to the breeders, while still others died.  

Yuanzi is determined not to make the same mistake twice. A few days ago, she adopted a stray cat that had been living on the streets near her home. This is the only way, she believes, to ensure she’s not complicit within backyard breeding.

“Where there are buyers, there are sellers, trade, and tragedies, ” she says.

Editor: Dominic Morgan.

(Header image:   Cats forgotten inside a backyard breeding middle that operated under the guise of a cat café in Chengdu, Sichuan province. Thanks to Live With The Cat )

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *